Accrual Swap

An interest rate swap where a counterparty pays a vanilla floating reference rate, usually three or six month LIBOR, and receives LIBOR plus a significant spread. Interest payments to this counterparty will only accrue on days when rates stay within a certain range dictated by preset upper and lower boundaries.

Aggregate Demand

Used loosely to describe all private and public sector demand for goods and services produced by a given country. In practice, it is interchangeable with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Academic notions of aggregate demand make a distinction between short-term and long-term, and are modeled as a function of price levels.

Aggregate Supply

Measures the total volume of goods and services produced by a given economy. Generally speaking, an increase in demand should lead to an expansion of aggregate supply in the economy. In the event of a mismatch between aggregate supply and aggregate demand, prices would change (i.e. inflation/deflation) in order to return the economy to equilibrium.

American Depositary Receipt (ADR)

A vehicle which effectively enables American investors to own shares in foreign corporations. ADRS trade on exchanges like conventional securities. The sponsoring bank collects dividends, pays local taxes and converts them to dollars for distribution to American shareholders. It should be noted that ADRs are affected both by company performance and by changes in exchange rates.


Is a simultaneous operation in two different but related markets in order to take advantage of a discrepancy between them which will lock in a certain profit. The arbitrage operation itself will usually tend to cause the different markets to move back in line.Covered interest arbitrage involves either the lending and borrowing of a currency in different centres, or the creation of a borrowing in one currency by borrowing another and converting the currency borrowed by means of a foreign exchange swap deal to produce the required currency at a cheaper rate.

Ask (Offer) Price

The price at which specific currency or contract can be purchased. In practice, this can be understood as the number on the right side of the quote, which is usually the higher price. For example, in the quote EUR/USD 1.4122/26, the ask price is 1.4126; meaning you can buy one Euro for 1.4126 US dollars. Opposite to bid price.

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